Place a droplet of water on a surface and it will bunch up, take on the shape of a half sphere. That’s because water molecules are cohesive, partly meaning they have high surface tension in air. The water droplets keep all their surface water molecules tied tightly to one another.


Place a droplet of oil on a surface and it will spread out to cover the surface, its boundary with air or other surface flat like the surface it sits upon. Oil molecules are very low in surface tension, more adhesive to surfaces than cohesive.


Imagine a large droplet of water sitting on a surface. In the center of that (maybe with a syringe) inject a droplet of oil. We know oil and water don’t mix. They don’t mix because one has a very high surface tension and the other a very low one, resulting in a very high interfacial tension between the two fluids (interfacial tension is the difference between the large surface tension on one side of a boundary minus the smaller surface tension on the other side). If this tension between the fluids were low, in a short space of time, they would mix and there would be no discernible boundary and nothing to measure. There always needs to be something to measure in an experiment if results are desired.

Interfacial tension: 

The importance of measuring interfacial tension (gamma) between fluids across a boundary between them is that the pressure drop (dP) required to change or deform that boundary is the product of gamma and the curvature (kappa=1/radius) of that boundary. The lower the gamma and kappa, the less resistive the boundary and the easier it is for forces to change or deform that boundary. The higher the gamma and kappa, the harder it is for forces to change or deform the boundary between the two fluids.


The mathematical equation which governs the injection of a droplet of one fluid in another (either oil in water or water in oil) is the same equation that governs all of the mainstream physical universe. It is the equation (the energy equation) from which we get all solutions for normal space/time. And this is what it says: the forces required to change the relationship (boundary) between at least two things takes on four behavioral forms all supported by the descriptive mathematical terms of the energy equation (whichever term dominates the equation in magnitude).


  1. Stable/Steady: Starting with the supposed Big Bang of our universe which starts as a singularity (a pure injecting expansion of matter or a perfectly circular (coherent) expanding drop from an injection site). Early on if the universe is a perfect circle (2D)/sphere (3D), its curvature is constant and large(1/radius). There is no change boundary—the leading edge of the expansion is both stable (doesn’t change in space) and steady (doesn’t change in time).
  2. Unstable/Unsteady: The leading edge begins to buckle (change shape in space) and it begins to oscillate about the point of injection (its center) (changes shape in time).

This is the phase along a relationship boundary where differences abound and become more complex. Relationship boundaries or systems (what we recognize as objects) begin to function in a more complex manner.

  1. Quasi-steady: Curvature and the complexity of curvature increases along the boundary, now separated into two regions: the troughs of the waves acting like gravitational wells, masses, or localities (they move little, do not expand or grow) and the crests, that continue to divide and become more complex in shape, going through their own second (number two (2) above) form of boundary (possibly analogous to non localities of the quantum world).
  2. Stable/Steady: All of crests gain high curvature preventing further changes or expansion, just as the troughs did earlier in the growth process.


Complex systems or relationships across boundaries, like ourselves, would have to populate boundary relationships two (2) or three (3) above, in order to exist, since they are the only states involving change and there is no relationship, boundary, or existence without change.


Boundary relationship two (2) does not maintain a manifested state, since no troughs or crests or complex curvatures on the boundary are pinned down or maintained. They exist before any constant forms initiate in the quasi-steady state (boundary relationship three (3)). This might be analogous to the process by which large centrally located massive bodies were formed in the early universe (perhaps black holes at the center of the first galaxies).


We know that we are planetary beings, so that our galaxy, it’s black hole, our sun, and our planet needs to be set down or formed before our evolutionary selves can arise. That leaves the quasi-steady state where awareness—and then later the more complex system of human consciousness—evolves along the relationship boundary.


The simple analogy of boundary relationships show regions of troughs and crests to behave differently. If the universe is expanding, then the areas of galaxies, especially black holes at their centers, the stars and planets are sitting at fair stability about their cgs (centers of gravity). And the rest of the universe, mostly subatomic and small atomic particles, by their movements are expanding/creating space. This fact might present a great challenge to the quest for a T.O.E. (theory of everything) that seeks to merge solutions for the gravitational and quantum worlds.


In the two-fluid experiment, the expanding boundary is the relationship boundary where the inner inviscid fluid forces its way into the more viscous secondary fluid, causing sine wave/buckling changes there. 

What is the mechanism that lends stability to troughs and their mass analogs?

What is the mechanism that creates and expands space about the troughs/massive cgs?

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