April 22, 2018 V: Voyager Satellite/Probe (What it tells us about the shape of space).
The reason I chose to look at the Voyager spacecraft has, of course, something to do with THE EXPERIMENT; how this analog might help to predict the meaning of anomalous data collected and transmitted from Voyager I, and what it says about interstellar space.
From Wikipedia (Voyager): After completing its primary mission with the flyby of Saturn on November 12, 1980, Voyager 1 became the third of five artificial objects to achieve the escape velocity that will allow them to leave the Solar System. On August 25, 2012, Voyager 1 became the first spacecraft to cross the heliopause and enter the interstellar medium.
From NASA (Voyager) “The Voyager spacecraft were built by JPL, which continues to operate both. JPL is a division of Caltech in Pasadena. The Voyager missions are a part of the NASA Heliophysics System Observatory, sponsored by the Heliophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate in Washington.”
Passed the heliopause, the boundary between our solar system and outer space, there are electromagnetic particle/waves/energy-packets that are products of supernovas and other extreme events in the rest of our galaxy. Within our solar system, these cosmic rays are generally pushed aside by the solar wind coming from our star. Right now, we’re in a solar minimum (where the sun is cooler than usual (has few sunspots and a lower than normal solar wind).
The concern I have is: what if the shape of our solar system is similar to the offset mode that evolves into a single massive-body/trough, then how does the concave downward (ccdown) relationship boundary (as opposed to the concave upward (ccup) boundary at the trough/mass) behave? We saw that this might model the accelerated stars at the edge of galaxies. Can it explain anomalies at the edge or just beyond the edge of our solar system? Many times the astrophysical and cosmological communities suggest dark energy or dark matter as being the culprit. What if only the absolute curvature (ccup or ccdown) accounts for these phenomena.
The nature of spatial curvature, extension, and acceleration of objects (in the relational boundary of the universe):
If, as a ship orbiting the sun needs to put more energy into its system (in accelerating) in order to reach orbits farther away from the Sun or Earth, then why are orbital velocities of the planets move slower, suggesting a reduction in velocity, as we move outward?
Just because the gravitational attraction of the sun is reduced (in Newton’s Gravitational Equation/Forces) the farther the ship moves outward, out from the sun (maybe even out of our solar system the required energy to do all that increases). A rocket ship must accelerate (reach higher velocities) in order to surmount the energy needed to move away from the sun. To find out how much energy is required to reach orbits farther and farther out, we need to find the areas that orbit sweeps out under the orbital curve. That required energy increases as we attempt to escape the sun’s gravitational influence.
The graphs above for red and green show the reduction in orbital speed is related to the increase in orbital radius from the sun (because gravitational forces are weaker the larger the radial distance from the sun). So the orbital velocity for each planet gets slower the farther out it orbits. However, to get your rocket ship farther out, farther away for the sun, you need to expend more energy. That’s what the turquoise and blue lines represent. The larger the orbital radius, the more energy must be put into the system (energy expended from the rear end of the rocket). That energy was calculated by assuming perfectly circular orbits of the planets (eccentricity = 1) and the area carved out by the curve (see Kepler).
How does the relational boundary of the universe behave like a rubber band in gravitational tension (similar to the interfacial tension in our expanding droplet experiment)?
Why do rocket blasts get us from the Earth to farther out in the solar system? How does action/reaction work (Newton’s Third Law of Motion: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction)? How can we run our own test on this principle? You might say, launch a small rocket, but to understand how the universe makes this work think about this:
You’re on the edge of a pool and next to you in the water, touching the side, is a wooden raft. You decide to walk onto the raft and move to the far edge of the raft. What happens to the position of the raft?
Think of yourself as a moving mass, like the ignited gases out the back end of the rocket. Before you take a step onto the raft, the center of gravity of the raft is in its center. But the weight distribution of the raft changes when you step onto it. The new center of gravity of the system moves to the left because of your added weight. What happens to the raft (that we assume is floating frictionless on the water)?
The raft and human combo wants to move so that the new cg returns to where it was before you stepped onto the raft. Since the new cg of the combined system moves to the left, the raft, in order to attain its original cg, moves to the right, away from the edge of the pool. Be careful or you’ll fall in!
What if you moved to the halfway point? The cg of the system combo is moving to the right, so the raft moves back to the edge of the pool.
Now what happens if you walk to the far edge of the raft? The cg has moved to the right again, and so, the raft will hug the edge of the pool even harder, but won’t be able to move.
But what happens if you’re standing at the center of your raft out in the middle of the pool? Then you walk away from the edge? The cg moves to the right, and the raft combo moves to the left. You’d propel your raft toward the edge.
In the same way, a rocket on takeoff loses weight under itself when it expels its ignited gases (part of the original system). That means the cg is moved downward, as if the rocket is embedded in an elastic band, the cg of the rocket (with fuel loss) is drawn back to its original cg, upward.
This is how to imagine for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Space kind of acts as if it’s an elastic band. When it loses energy, it attempts to maintain its cg by moving in the opposite direction. When you pull on a rubber band, it pulls back on your finger in the opposite direction.
How much energy must have gone into Voyager I over its forty years? Just take its radius from the sun and calculate the area it has swept out until it reached the heliopause. Then subtract away the area swept out by the Earth (since we launched the satellite/probe from the Earth). Now, can you calculate how much energy is required to get us to the nearest star? Would that be possible with the technology we have today?
There is an unexplained acceleration of the measurement of the velocities of spacecraft (like Voyager) on the outskirts of the planets, the sun, and stars at the outer rim of galaxies. If the original expansion of the universe was very large, then the offset, the first mode of instability of the universe, may look like our “dividing” droplet.
In this expanding droplet experiment, the walls of the trough of the first perturbing sine wave curve is concave downward against the outward expansion. This is similar to the characteristic of interfacial tension (except with gravitational tension of universal space taking its place). The first mode of our universe (its shape and curvature) might have benefited from this type of expansive flow.